Reproduction Rights Organizations (RROs)
RROs, sometimes known as Collective Management Organizations (CMOs), operate in many countries and offer a range of annual academic and business copyright licenses. These licenses enable organizations to undertake a range of print and digital copying and scanning of copyright content from the majority of publishers, for sharing internally without having to clear every transaction individually.
The larger RROs include: Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC)
The Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) is based in the US and offers annual copyright licenses largely to customers in the United States. CCC also owns and manages the RightsLink transactional permission service on behalf of publishers. They also provide useful Copyright training resources
and an Open Access Resource Center
on their web site. Copyright Licensing Agency, Ltd. (CLA)
The Copyright Licensing Agency, Ltd. Is based in the UK and offers annual copyright licenses to customers in the UK. They also operate the PLS Clear transactional permission service on behalf of publishers.
Access Copyright is based in Canada and offers annual copyright licenses to customers in Canada.
Copyright Agency (CA)
The Copyright Agency is based in Australia and offers annual copyright licenses to customers in Australia. They also offer the RightsPortal Journals transactional permissions service to customers in the Asia Pacific region. International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organizations (IFRRO)
IFRRO is the main international network of reproduction rights organizations and provides contact details for each country represented. They work to protect and enable easy legal access to copyright material.